The US Highway Safety Administration defines automotive intelligence as the following five levels.
(1) No intelligence (level 0): The driver fully controls the original underlying structure of the car at all times, including the brakes, steering gear, accelerator pedal and starter.
(2) Intelligence with special functions (Level 1): This level of car has one or more special automatic control functions, which can be called “assisted driving stage” by warning to prevent accidents in the first place. Many technologies at this stage are familiar to everyone, such as lane departure warning (LDW) system, forward collision warning (FCW) system, blind spot information system (BLIS).
(3) Intelligentization with multiple functions (level 2): This level of car has a system that integrates at least two original control functions together, and does not require the driver to control these functions at all. It can be called “semi-automatic Driving stage”. At this stage, the car will intelligently determine whether the driver responds to the warning of the dangerous situation. If the driver does not actively respond to the dangerous situation, the car’s intelligent control system takes action instead of the driver, such as the automatic emergency braking (AEB) system and the emergency lane assist (ELA) system.
(4) Unmanned driving with restricted conditions (Level 3): This level of car can allow the driver to not control the car at all in a specific driving traffic environment, and the car can automatically detect changes in the environment to determine whether to return to the driver The driving mode can be called the “highly automated driving stage”. Google’s driverless cars are basically at this level.
(5) Unmanned driving in all working conditions (level 4): The car at this level fully automatically controls the vehicle, detects the traffic environment throughout, and can achieve all driving goals. The driver only needs to provide the destination or enter the navigation information at any time. There is no need to control the vehicle, which can be called the “fully autonomous driving phase” or the “unmanned driving phase”.
The two levels of “assisted driving phase” and “semi-automatic driving phase” of smart cars have been widely used and have become an important means to improve product quality and market competitiveness. The first-level assisted driving technology of smart cars includes two types: autonomous assisted driving technology and cooperative assisted driving technology. Autonomous is a smart car based on advanced on-board sensor devices and control systems, applying artificial intelligence and other technologies to realize autonomous control of the car’s body. Vehicle companies represented by Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, GM, Honda, and Nissan mainly adopt autonomous vehicles. As shown in Table 1, the technology development is relatively mature. Collaboration is a smart car that integrates information communication, car networking, cloud computing and other technologies to realize information interconnection and real-time interaction between vehicles and the environment. Internet companies such as Google, Apple, and Baidu are the main promoters of the collaborative route, such as Table 2 shows.
|enterprise||Function||Equipped with sensors|
|Mercedes-Benz||Collision warning assistance, lane keeping, active parking assistance, distance control, etc.||Ultrasonic radar, stereo camera, etc.|
|Volkswagen||Adaptive cruise, parking assist, lane assist, etc.||Millimeter wave radar, global positioning instrument, etc.|
|General Motors Corporation||Super Cruise (Adaptive Cruise, Same Lane Keeping)||Radar, camera, GPS, etc.|
|Honda||Honda SENSING (collision mitigation braking, automatic parking, lane keeping, etc.)||Microwave radar, monocular camera, etc.|
|Nissan||Adaptive cruise, collision hazard reduction sword movement, active parking assistance, etc.||Lidar, sonic locator, etc.|
|Mitsubishi||Collision hazard reduction, braking, driver attention monitoring, etc.||Millimeter wave radar, camera, etc.|
|enterprise||Internet of Vehicles Platform||company advantage|
|Google Car||Artificial Intelligence AlphaGo, Google Maps, Google Search Citations, etc.|
|Apple||CarPlay||iTunes, Siri, los system, etc.|
|Baidu||CarLife||Baidu map, voice recognition, Mycar cloud computing, etc.|
|Alibaba||Yun OS||Alibaba Communications, AutoNavi Maps, Alibaba Cloud Computing, etc.|
|Tencent||Autolink ROM||Chelian APP, Mycar, Situ Restoration HD map, etc.|
|LeTV||LeUl Auto||Map navigation, car service, remote control and management, etc.|
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) predicts that by the middle of the 21st century, driverless cars will account for 75% of the global car ownership, and the concept of automotive transportation systems will usher in changes. Traffic rules and foundations Facilities will undergo drastic changes with the emergence of driverless cars, and smart cars may subvert the current mode of operation of the automobile transportation industry. Information Handling Services (IHS), a well-known consulting organization in the automotive industry, released a forecast report stating that “intelligent cars that realize driverless driving through computer systems” are developing faster than pure electric vehicles. To achieve large-scale mass production, sales will reach 11.8 million vehicles in 2035, accounting for 9% of the total global automobile market sales in the same period.